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Gap junctions.

These are not chemical synapses but electrical in nature. They produce a current proportional to the difference between pre- and postsynaptic potential. No transmitter or action potential is involved:


Sometimes these act as rectifiers so that the positive and negative current flow is not equal for potential differences of the same magnitude

Figure 4: Rectifying gap junction
\psfig {,height=1.5in,angle=270}

Many non-neural cells are coupled in this manner; muscle, glia, and most humoral cells.

G. Bard Ermentrout