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This section is largely stolen from Artie Sherman's notes from Woods
Hole.
The general initial value problem we want to solve is

| |
(1) |

with initial condition *y*(0) = *y*_{0}. This is a *first-order*
differential equation. *y* and *f*(*y*,*t*) can be vectors
when we have a first-order system. For example, the Hodgkin-Huxley
equations have *y* = (*V*,*m*,*h*,*n*). The *t* dependence may reflect
experimental manipulations, such as turning an applied current on and
off, or other external influences, such as an imposed synaptic
conductance change from another cell. We will suppress the *t*
dependence for simplicity in many cases below.
First order systems are natural in neurobiology. If confronted with a
higher order system, convert it to first order, since most solution
packages assume this form. For example, the second order equation

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(2) |

can be converted by the transformation to
| |
(3) |

We will make use of this equation in the discussion of stiffness below.

*G. Bard Ermentrout*

*1/9/1998*